One of the four sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, he is associated with a wide range of concepts, including the night sky, the night winds, hurricanes, the north, the earth, obsidian, enmity, discord, rulership, divination, temptation, jaguars, sorcery, beauty, war, and strife. "On his installation," the new king fasted and meditated, "which included prayers in honor of Tezcatlipoca, the patron deity of the royal house". Transformed into giant snakes, the two gods attacked and dismembered the female reptilian m… He is the 9th of the 13 Lords of the Day and is often associated with the rain god Tláloc. In one version of the Aztec creation account the myth of the Five Suns, the first creation, "The Sun of the Earth" was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed into a jaguar. His main temple in Tenochtitlan included a platform reached by 80 stone steps. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. Perhaps thou mistaketh me for another; perhaps thou seekest another in my stead[21], For kings, lords, priests, and citizens alike, the cyclical nature they observed every day and every year was portrayed not through science or philosophical debate, but utter reverence and respect for the spiritual beings they believed were the cause of these events. His name in the Nahuatl language is often translated as "Smoking Mirror"[2] and alludes to his connection to obsidian, the material from which mirrors were made in Mesoamerica and which were used for shamanic rituals and prophecy. Tezcatlipoca was hell-bent on destroying Quetzalcoatl and the Toltecs. Tezcatlipoca was the son of the god Ometéotl, who was the original creator entity. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and springtime. So the combination of quetzalli "precious feather" and coatl "snake" has often been interpreted as signifying a serpent with the feathers of Quetzal. On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholar… ", "Method and Skepticism (and Quetzalcoatl...)", "Quetzalcoatl, the Maya maize god and Jesus Christ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Quetzalcoatl&oldid=1000762531, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Classical Nahuatl-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with Nahuatl languages-collective sources (nah), Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 16:14. He is now most famous as the rival of his brother, Quetzalcoatl, the Plumed Serpent, whose fall from grace was maneuvered by Tezcatlipoca’s smoke and mirrors. "[4], The earliest known documentation of the worship of a Feathered Serpent occurs in Teotihuacan in the first century BC or first century AD. He was also the patron god of the Aztec priesthood, of learning and knowledge. Historians debate to what degree, or whether at all, these narratives about this legendary Toltec ruler describe historical events. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures. [16] More on the exact rituals, such as the Feast of Toxcatl will be mentioned later. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca were brothers in divine myths, where they worked together as creators, and against each other in acts of destruction. Tezcatlipoca was believed to be the son of the primordial androgynous god Ometeotl. [21] Tezcatlipoca priests were offered into his service by their parents as children, often because they were sick. Those people who survived the deluge were turned into fish.[29]. And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: "[Quetzalcoatl] is wrathful. In one version of the Aztec creation account[19] the myth of the Five Suns, the first creation, "The Sun of the Earth" was ruled by Tezcatlipoca but destroyed by Quetzalcoatl when he struck down Tezcatlipoca who then transformed into a jaguar. [27] During the last 20 days before being sacrificed, the ixiptla had their appearance transformed back to that of a warrior. This view has been questioned by ethno-historians who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not found in any document that was created independently of post-Conquest Spanish influence, and that there is little proof of a pre-Hispanic belief in Quetzalcoatl's return. He was known as the inventor of books and the calendar, the giver of maize (corn) to mankind, and sometimes as a symbol of death and resurrection. Tezcatlipoca turned himself into a jaguar and ripped the world apart. For most things, Quetzalcoatl endorses communication and prosperity with a smiling face, saying that “it is wonderful everybody’s fineee, so this elder sister is happy!”, but she becomes displeased when talking about alcohol and Tezcatlipoca. [23] Quetzalcoatl was often considered the god of the morning star, and his twin brother Xolotl was the evening star (Venus). In the complex Mesoamerican creation myths Tezcatlipoca ruled the first world of the Sun but was then overthrown by Quetzalcóatl. As the morning and evening star, Quetzalcóatl was the symbol of death and resurrection. However, a majority of Mesoamericanist scholars, such as Matthew Restall (2003, 2018[33]), James Lockhart (1994), Susan D. Gillespie (1989), Camilla Townsend (2003a, 2003b), Louise Burkhart, Michel Graulich and Michael E. Smith (2003), among others, consider the "Quetzalcoatl/Cortés myth" as one of many myths about the Spanish conquest which have risen in the early post-conquest period. Mexico's flagship airline Aeroméxico has a Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner painted in a special Quezalcoatl livery. The Tlaxcalteca, along with other city-states across the Plain of Puebla, then supplied the auxiliary and logistical support for the conquests of Guatemala and West Mexico while Mixtec and Zapotec caciques (Colonial indigenous rulers) gained monopolies in the overland transport of Manila galleon trade through Mexico, and formed highly lucrative relationships with the Dominican order in the new Spanish imperial world economic system that explains so much of the enduring legacy of indigenous life-ways that characterize southern Mexico and explain the popularity of the Quetzalcoatl legends that continued through the colonial period to the present day. But she was crushed by Tezcatlipoca's words who accused her of just pretending to be kind. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Maya Young Maize god was also connected to Venus. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca represent the bright and dark aspects of the Creator. 5D's, Fate/Grand Order - Absolute Demonic Front: Babylonia, Beyblade: Metal Fusion and Miss Kobayashi's Dragon Maid (the latter depicting Quetzalcoatl as a female dragon deity); the Megami Tensei video game franchise; the video games Fate/Grand Order, Final Fantasy VIII, Final Fantasy XV, Sanitarium, Smite (as an alternate costume for his Mayan counterpart, Kukulkan), and Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine; as the main antagonist in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth"; and in the last of The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel books. By the Late Classic Period (600AD-900AD), it appears that the worship of Quetzalcoatl had spread througho… This person deeply regrets that she was defeated in the battle with Tezcatlipoca, while simultaneously, she feels a lot of resentment as a result. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca, being ‘creator’ gods and direct sons of the original deity Ometeotl, constantly struggled against each other for power. This individual was called the ixiptla or "deity impersonator" and was chosen to ceremonially represent the god to the Aztec people. This talisman was carved out of abalone shell and depicted on the chest of both Huitzilopochtli and Tezcatlipoca in codex illustrations. In what manner shall I act for thy city? In this period the deity is known to have been named Quetzalcōhuātl by his Nahua followers. Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. [5] That period lies within the Late Preclassic to Early Classic period (400 BC – 600 AD) of Mesoamerican chronology; veneration of the figure appears to have spread throughout Mesoamerica by the Late Classic period (600–900 AD).[6]. [12] In his form as the morning star, Venus, he is also depicted as a harpy eagle. Angered in turn, he would not make it rain for several years until, in a fit of rage, he made it rain fire with the few people who survived the assault turning into the birds. Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: teuhtli quaqualaca, ycoioca, tetecujca, tlatlaiooa, tlatlapitza, tlatlatzinj, motlatlaueltia. This article is about a Mesoamerican deity. Common ornaments were white turkey feather headdresses, a paper loincloth, and a tzanatl stick with similar feathers and paper decorations. Quetzalcoatl went to Mictlan, the underworld, and created fifth-world mankind from the bones of the previous races (with the help of Cihuacoatl), using his own blood, from a wound he inflicted on his earlobes, calves, tongue, and penis, to imbue the bones with new life. [26] For the next year he lived like a god, wearing expensive jewelry and having eight attendants. Represented as the plumed serpent, Quetzalcoatl was also manifest in the wind, one of the most powerful forces of nature, and this relationship was captured in a text in the Nahuatl language: Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti. A feathered serpent deity has been worshiped by many different ethno-political groups in Mesoamerican history. With each victory a world age is ended; Tezcatlipoca’svictories signify the end of the second and fourth suns, so that Quetzalcoatl may return at the end of the fifth and final sun to triumph at the ending of the world. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya, the deity began acquiring human features. Quetzal feathers were a rare and precious commodity in the Aztec culture. Sometimes the mirror was shown on his chest, and sometimes smoke would emanate from the mirror. The Main temple of Tezcatlipoca in Tenochtitlan was located south of the Great Temple. [26] "For one year he lived a life of honor," the handsome young man "worshipped literally as the embodiment of the deity". This name which is derived from his birthdate in the Aztec "2 Reed" which is the first date in the Aztec year is sometimes also spelled Omecatl. The next morning, Quetzalcoatl, feeling shame and regret, had his servants build him a stone chest, adorn him in turquoise, and then, laying in the chest, set himself on fire. [29] Chalchihuitlicue the Water Goddess then became the sun. Members of this confederacy from Tlaxcala, Puebla, and Oaxaca provided the Spaniards with the army that first reclaimed the city of Cholula from its pro-Aztec ruling faction, and ultimately defeated the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). According to many Aztec legends, Tezcatlipoca and his brother the god Quetzalcoatl created the world. Animals thought to represent Quetzalcoatl include resplendent quetzals, rattlesnakes (coatl meaning "serpent" in Nahuatl), crows, and macaws. [34] Some Franciscans at this time held millennarian beliefs[35] and some of them believed that Cortés' coming to the New World ushered in the final era of evangelization before the coming of the millennium. Two other gods represented by the planet Venus are Quetzalcoatl's ally Tlaloc (the god of rain), and Quetzalcoatl's twin and psychopomp, Xolotl. In Aztec mythology he was the brother of Quetzalcoatl, Huizilopochtli and Xipe Totec. Background. Tier: At most 1-A. Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. See more ideas about aztec art, mesoamerican, aztec warrior. Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. [29] The two gods then captured her, and distorted her to make the land from her body. "[28] He would then be wed to four young women, also chosen in advance and isolated for a full year and treated as goddesses. Tezcatlipoca was a significant god in Aztec religion. Apart from being a creator deity, he also ruled over the modern age. Tlaloc, the god of rain, then became the sun. For a summary of Tezcatlipoca's epithets and their significance see Olivier (2003) Chapter 1. Cholula is known to have remained the most important center of worship to Quetzalcoatl, the Aztec/Nahua version of the feathered serpent deity, in the post-classic period. The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around 600 AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as Xochicalco, Cacaxtla and Cholula. According to Fray Diego Durán it was "lofty and magnificently built. Tezcatlipoca was originally a god of warriors and the sun, the ruler of the First Sun, one of the great historical ages in the Olman circular calendar. [28][29][30][31][32] Most documents expounding this theory are of entirely Spanish origin, such as Cortés's letters to Charles V of Spain, in which Cortés goes to great pains to present the naive gullibility of the Aztecs in general as a great aid in his conquest of Mexico. [13], Many of the temples now associated with Tezcatlipoca are built facing East-West, as Olivier quotes Felipe Solis: "the sacred building of the war god [Tezcatlipoca] was in direct relation with the movement of the sun, in the same manner of the Great Temple was, their façades being towards the West". [citation needed], In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said Quetzalcoatl was coerced by Tezcatlipoca into becoming drunk on pulque, cavorting with his older sister, Quetzalpetlatl, a celibate priestess, and neglecting their religious duties. There were several priests dedicated to the service of Tezcatlipoca, one of them was probably the one Sahagún calls "huitznahuac teohua omacatl", others were the calmeca teteuctin who were allowed to eat the ritual food offered to Tezcatlipoca, others accompanied the Ixiptlatli impersonator of Tezcatlipoca in the year prior to his execution. A central figure of the Popol Vuh was the god Tohil whose name means "obsidian" and who was associated with sacrifice. This marriage, occurring after a full year of abstinence, symbolized a period of fertility which followed the drought. Chimalma c… "Sacrificial victims mounted the bloody steps of the pyramid with dignity and pride. However, ixiptla were usually selected from among captive warriors, and the chosen individual was bathed and ceremoniously cleansed for the role that he was to undertake. For I am blind, I am deaf, I am an imbecile, and in excrement, in filth hath my lifetime been... In the Postclassic period (900–1519 AD), the worship of the feathered-serpent deity centred in the primary Mexican religious center of Cholula. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. [21] The king would stand "naked, emphasizing his utter unworthiness," speaking as nothing but a vessel for the god's will. For an in depth description and interpretation of the Toxcatl festival see Olivier (2003) Chapter 6. Quetzalcoatl is not a religious symbol in the Latter-day Saint faith, and is not taught as such, nor is it in their doctrine that Quetzalcoatl is Jesus. He was overthrown by Tezcatlipoca, who saw that the people who lived under Quetzalcoatl were animalistic and uncivilized. Christian missionaries perceived the tragic Quetzalcoatl as a Christ-figure. The rivalry between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca is also recounted in the legends of Tollan where Tezcatlipoca deceives Quetzalcoatl who was the ruler of the legendary city and forces him into exile. Subtleties in, and an imperfect scholarly understanding of, high Nahuatl rhetorical style make the exact intent of these comments tricky to ascertain, but Restall argues that Moctezuma's politely offering his throne to Cortés (if indeed he did ever give the speech as reported) may well have been meant as the exact opposite of what it was taken to mean: politeness in Aztec culture was a way to assert dominance and show superiority. Eighty steps led to a landing twelve or fourteen feet wide. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, lady and lord of the duality, and were the creators of all the other gods, as well as the world and all humanity. Everyone, including commoners, high priests, and the king, were involved in some aspect of the Toxcatl ceremonies.[23]. In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca joined forces to create the surface of the earth but later became fierce enemies in the city of Tollan. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire. [need quotation to verify] Codex drawings pictured both Quetzalcoatl and Xolotl wearing an ehēcacōzcatl around the neck. But the history of the former has been handed down to us through an impure Lamanitish source, which has sadly disfigured and perverted the original incidents and teachings of the Savior's life and ministry. The gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca brought the earth goddess Tlalteuctli down … Tezcatlipoca and his followers came to Earth from another world thousands of years ago, along with his enemy Quetzalcoatl to monitor the evolution of the human race if mankind had developed on the wrong track here would use their vast powers to destroy the world and permit after its reconstruction, then return to Quetzalcoatl into outer space. After Great Monster Wars, the records and lore about her were buried away by Goddess Ilias. For a discussion of the many interpretations of the meaning of the name Tezcatlipoca see Olivier (2003) pp. Women were sometimes sacrificed as ixiptla to honor female deities. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. After that, they created the people, and people had to offer sacrifices to comfort Cipactli for her sufferings. Tezcatlipoca(テスカトリポカ, Tesukatoripoka?) Tezcatlipoca was often described as a rival of another important god of the Aztecs, the culture hero, Quetzalcoatl. Tezcatlipoca was also honoured during the ceremony of the 9th month, when the Miccailhuitontli "Little Feast of the Dead" was celebrated to honour the dead, as well as during the Panquetzaliztli "Raising of Banners" ceremony in the 15th month. is a Divine Spirit of Aztec mythology from Mesoamerica. Similarities exist with the patron deity of the K'iche' Maya as described in the Popol Vuh. 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